A new memmap option was added that supports reserving one or more ranged of unassigned memory for use with emulated persistent memory. This feature was upstreamed in the v4.
Kernel v4. Changing GRUB menu entries and kernel arguments vary between Linux distributions and versions of the same distro. Instructions for some of the common Linux distros can be found below.
Refer to the documentation of the Linux distro and version being used for more information. The memory region will be marked as e type 12 0xc. This is visible at boot time. Use the dmesg command to view these messages. Follow the documentation for your distro. A few of the common distros are provided below for quick reference. Fedora 23 or later:. Fedora 22 and earlier:. Update the grub config using one of the following methods:.Setting Kernel Parameters in Linux - (Terminal-Shell-Tweak)
On BIOS-based machines:. On UEFI-based machines:. Then update grub and reboot. Note: If more than one persistent memory namespace is required, specify a memmap entry for each namespace. Reboot the host. When selecting values for the memmap kernel parameter, consideration that the start and end addresses represent usable RAM must be made.
Using or overlapping with reserved memory can result in corruption or undefined behaviour. This information is easily available in the e table, available via dmesg.
To reserve the 12GiB usable space between 4GiB and 16GiB as emulated persistent memory, the syntax for this reservation will be as follows:. After rebooting a new user defined e table entry shows the range is now "persistent type 12 ":. The fdisk or lsblk utilities can be used to show the capacity, eg:.These pages contain instructions, links and other information related to persistent memory in Linux.
You can divide persistent memory address ranges into namespaces with ndctl. This stores namespace label metadata at the beginning of the persistent memory address range. For some common persistent memory capacities:. Sector Atomic mode uses a Block Translation Layer BTT to help software that doesn't understand sectors might end up with a mix of old and new data if power loss occurs while writes were underway. Filesystem DAX mode lets the filesystem provide direct access to persistent memory to applications by using mmap e.
Device DAX mode creates a character device instead of a block device, and is intended for applications that mmap the the entire capacity.
It does not support filesystems or interact with the kernel page cache. You can use the following bash script to convert all your raw mode namespaces to fsdax mode:.
This function highlights a tricky thing about ndctl and json. If you have a single namespace, that is returned by ndctl list as a single json object:. Note the outer [ and ] brackets surrounding the objects which turn it into an array. The difficulty is that a given jq command expects to either operate on objects or on an array, but not both. So, the command you need to run will vary based on how many namespaces you have.
The command above works around this by first converting the multiple namespace output from an array of objects to multiple objects in a series:. We then structure the rest of the jq command to operate on normal objects, and it works whether we have one namespace or many. The device names chosen by the kernel are subject to creation order and discovery order. Environments can not rely the kernel name being consistent from one boot to the next.
Recent versions of udev deploy the following udev rule in persistent-storage. In parted, the mkpart subcommand has this syntax. You may place any filesystem e. You may use DAX on raw devices and fsdax devices, but not on sector devices.
Example creating ext4, xfs, and btrfs filesystems on three partitions and mounting ext4 and xfs with DAX note: df -h displays sizes in IEC binary units; df -H uses SI decimal units :. Check the kernel log to ensure the DAX mount option was honored; mount does not print this information. Example failures:. However, they can be enabled in sysfs if desired. As of kernel 4. User Tools Login. Site Tools. Table of Contents Persistent Memory.
On the other hand it can give to give a better more complete view of usable memory. How to better check if my EFI memory map includes more entries then my E map? If the EFI memory map has additional entries not in the E map, you can include those entries in the kernels memory map of available physical RAM by using the following kernel command line parameter.
On EFI systems, sometimes the e table is missing or incomplete. The kexec loader uses the pristine memory map by default, which causes problems when the loader doesn't have a complete picture of the system and incorrectly loads the kernel or ramdisk in places that aren't actually usable.
Boot loaders, or Grub for that matter, rebuilds the memory map like e, I guess this is the reason why you are seeing different values between GRUB and the EFI stub loader. There is a comment in the Linux source code which says that EFI allows "more than the max entries that can fit in the e legacy zeropage memory map. However, it certainly doesn't hurt to parse this table too This kernel command line option is rarely needed nowadays - UEFI firmware and Linux kernel support for same has significantly improved since era.
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Please visit this page to clear all LQ-related cookies. Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration.
This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free. Thread Tools. BB code is On. Smilies are On. All times are GMT The time now is AM. Open Source Consulting Domain Registration. Search Blogs. Mark Forums Read. User Name. Remember Me? Linux - Kernel This forum is for all discussion relating to the Linux kernel. View Public Profile. View Review Entries. Find More Posts by chandankalita.Module parameters can be specified in two ways: via the kernel command line with a module name prefix, or via modprobe, e.
Parameters for modules which are built into the kernel need to be specified on the kernel command line.
Some kernel parameters take a list of CPUs as a value, e. The format of this list is:. Note that for the special case of a range one can split the range into equal sized groups and for each group use some amount from the beginning of that group:. This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive.Bmw e60 steering wheel upgrade
The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a parameter is applicable:. Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly. There are also arch-specific kernel-parameters not documented here. The number of kernel parameters is not limited, but the length of the complete command line parameters including spaces etc.
This limit depends on the architecture and is between and characters. It is defined in the file. Finally, the [KMG] suffix is commonly described after a number of kernel parameter values. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted:. The Linux Kernel 4. AX25 Appropriate AX. CLK Common clock infrastructure is enabled.
HW Appropriate hardware is enabled. IA IA architecture is enabled. IMA Integrity measurement architecture is enabled. IPV6 IPv6 support is enabled. JOY Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
KGDB Kernel debugger support is enabled. LOOP Loopback device support is enabled.Process flow diagram how to diagram base website how to
M68k M68k architecture is enabled. NET Appropriate network support is enabled.
PPT Parallel port support is enabled. S S architecture is enabled. SH SuperH architecture is enabled. TS Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
V4L Video For Linux support is enabled. VT Virtual terminal support is enabled. WDT Watchdog support is enabled. X X, aka i architecture is enabled.
X X architecture is enabled. XEN Xen support is enabled.Il pri di carrara (ms)
KNL Is a kernel start-up parameter. BOOT Is a boot loader parameter.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.Outbound call center staffing calculator
Skip to content. Permalink Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. Branch: master. Find file Copy path. Raw Blame History. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface. If set to vendor, prefer vendor-specific driver.
If set to video, use the ACPI video. If set to native, use the device's native backlight mode. If set to none, disable the ACPI backlight interface. Some firmware have broken Disable AML predefined validation mechanism.
This mechanism can repair the evaluation result to make. This option is useful for developers to identify the. Enable processor driver info messages:. Enable AML "Debug" output, i. Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:. Some values produce so much output that the system is. Check for resource conflicts between native drivers. Enable table checksum verification during early stage. By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping.
GPE floodings that cannot be automatically disabled by. This facility can be used to prevent such uncontrolled. Disable auto-serialization of AML methods.
AML control methods that contain the opcodes to create.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Skip to content. Permalink Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. Branch: master. Find file Copy path. Raw Blame History. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
If set to vendor, prefer vendor-specific driver. If set to video, use the ACPI video. If set to native, use the device's native backlight mode. If set to none, disable the ACPI backlight interface.
Some firmware have broken Disable AML predefined validation mechanism. This mechanism can repair the evaluation result to make. This option is useful for developers to identify the.
Enable processor driver info messages:. Enable AML "Debug" output, i. Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:. Some values produce so much output that the system is.
Check for resource conflicts between native drivers. Enable table checksum verification during early stage. By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping.